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Bristol Blenheim (Bisley & Bollingbroke)

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Development

Entwicklung

 

The Bristol Blenheim was a British light bomber aircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company that was used extensively in the first two years of the Second World War. It was adapted as an interim long-range and night fighter, pending the availability of the Beaufighter. It was one of the first British aircraft to have all-metal stressed-skin construction, retractable landing gear, flaps, a powered gun turret and variable-pitch propellers.

A Canadian-built variant named the Bolingbroke was used as an anti-submarine and trainer. The Blenheim Mk I outran most biplane fighters in the late 1930s but stood little chance against the German Messerschmitt Bf 109 during daylight operations, though it proved successful as a night fighter. The Mark IV variant was equally unsuccessful in its daylight bombing role, suffering many losses in the early stages of the war.
  Die Bristol Blenheim war ein  leichter britischer Bomber von der Bristol Aeroplane Company entworfen und gebaut wurde und in den ersten zwei Jahren des Zweiten Weltkrieg verwendet wurde. Sie wurde als Interimslangstrecken und Nachtjäger verwendet, bis die Beaufighter verfügbar war. Es war eines der ersten britischen Flugzeugen, in Ganzmetall-Schalenbauweise und mit Einziehfahrwerk, Landeklappen, einem angetriebenen Geschützturm und Verstellpropel-lern.
Eine kanadische gebaute Variante genannt Boling-broke wurde als Anti-U-Boot-Jäger und Trainer ver-wendet. Die Blenheim Mk I überholte die meisten Doppeldecker-Jäger in den späten 1930er Jahren, hatte aber kaum eine Chance gegen die deutsche Messerschmitt Bf 109 während Tagesoperationen, erwies sich jedoch als erfolgreicher Nachtjäger. Die Mark IV Variante war in den Tagesoperationen ebenso erfolglos, und erlitt viele Verluste in der frühen Phase des Krieges. 
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Variants

Versionen

  Blenheim
Mk I
Three-seat twin-engined light bomber, powered by two 840 hp Bristol Mercury VIII radial piston engines, 1,552 built. Blenheim
Mk I
 
  Blenheim
Mk IF 
Night fighter version, equipped with an AI Mk III or Mk IV airborne interceptor radar, armed with four 7.7 mm machine guns in a special gun pack under the fuselage. About 200 Blenheim Mk Is were converted into Mk IF night fighters   Blenheim
Mk IF 
 
  Blenheim
Mk II
Long-range reconnaissance version with extra fuel tankage. Only one Blenheim Mk II was built.   Blenheim
Mk II
 
  Blenheim
Mk III
    Blenheim
Mk III
 
  Blenheim
Mk IV 
mproved version, fitted with protective armour, powered by two 905 hp Bristol Mercury XV radial piston engines 3,307 built. Blenheim
Mk IV 
 
  Blenheim
Mk IVF
Long-range fighter version, armed with four 7.7 mm machine guns in special gun pack under the fuselage. About 60 Blenheim Mk IVs were converted into Mk IVF fighters.   Blenheim
Mk IVF
 
  Bisley Mk I
Blenheim
Mk V
High-altitude bomber version, powered by two Bristol Mercury XV or XXV radial piston engines. Bisley Mk I
Blenheim
Mk V
 
  Bolingbroke
Mk I
Twin-engine maritime patrol bomber aircraft, powered by two Bristol Mercury VIII radial piston engines, with British equipment. 18 built.   Bolingbroke
Mk I
 
  Bolingbroke
Mk II
Conversion of fifth Mk I with US equipment - prototype of Mk IV.   Bolingbroke
Mk II
 
  Bolingbroke
Mk III
Floatplane conversion of sixteenth Bolingbroke Mk I, with two floats. Bolingbroke
Mk III
 
  Bolingbroke
Mk IV
Twin-engine maritime patrol bomber aircraft, equipped with anti-icing boots and a dinghy, also fitted with American and Canadian instruments and equipment, powered by two Bristol Mercury XV radial piston engines, 134 built.   Bolingbroke
Mk IV
 
  Bolingbroke
Mk IVW
Sub-version of Mk IV powered by two 825 hp Pratt & Whitney SB4G Twin Wasp Junior radial piston engines. only 15 aircraft were built.   Bolingbroke
Mk IVW
 
  Bolingbroke
Mk IVC
Version of Mk IV with 900 hp Wright R-1820 Cyclone engines. One built. Bolingbroke
Mk IVC
 
  Bolingbroke
Mk IVT
Multi-purpose trainer aircraft. A total of 350 built powered by Mercury XV engines, followed by a further 107 powered by the low-octane fuel Mercury XX engine, giving a total of 457 built, with a further 51 cancelled.   Bolingbroke
Mk IVT
 
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Civil Aviation  
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Prototype Blenheim Mk.I 1936

Prototype Bisley Mk.I 1941

 
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Specifications Blenheim Mk IV

Wingspan

Spannweite

17.17 m

Length

Länge

12.98 m

Height

Höhe

3.0 m

Wing area Flügelfläche

43.6 m²

Engine

Motor

 2 × Bristol Mercury XV radial engine, 920 hp each

Maximum speed

Höchstgeschwindigkeit

428 km/h

Empty weight

Leergewicht

4,450 kg

Loaded weight

Startgewicht

6,545 kg

Climb Rate

Steigrate

7.6 m/s

Service ceiling

Gipfelhöhe

8,310 m

Range

Reichweite

2,351 km

Armament

Bewaffnung

1 × 7.7 mm machine gun in port wing,  1 or 2 × 7.7 mm guns in rear-firing under-nose blister, 2 × 7.7 mm guns in dorsal turret, up to 54o Kg of Bombs


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last update 27. November 2015

written 27. November 2015

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